Most Innovative Company, South Africa, 2016, African Business Awards
Best Forensic Investigation Company, Africa, 2016, African Corporate Excellence Awards
Best in Security, Forensics & Investigations – 2016 – International Business Awards

Forensic Opinions

Document Forensics

Identification

This is a definite conclusion of identity and is the highest degree of confidence expressed by document examiners in handwriting comparisons. The examiner has no reservations whatever, and although prohibited from using the word “fact,” the examiner is certain, based on evidence contained in the handwriting, that the writer of the known material actually wrote the writing in question.

Strong probability

The same as “highly probable” or “very probable” – the evidence is very persuasive, yet some critical feature or quality is missing so that an identification is not in order.

Probable

The evidence contained in the handwriting points rather strongly toward the questioned and known writings having been written by the same individual; however, it falls short of the“ virtually certain” degree of confidence.

Indications

A body of writing has few features which are of significance for handwriting comparison purposes, but those features are in agreement with another body of writing. Often stated as “there is evidence to suggest that…”

No conclusion

Also expressed as “totally inconclusive” or “indeterminable” – This is the zero point of the con-fidence scale. It is used when there are significantly limiting factors, such as disguise in the questioned and/or known writing or a lack of comparable writing, and the exam-iner does not have even a leaning one way or another.

Indications did not

This carries the same weight as the indications term that is, it is a very weak opinion. Examples – There is very little significant evidence present in the comparable portions of the questioned and known writings, but that evidence sug-gests that the John Doe of the known material did not write the questioned material, or I found indications that the John Doe of the known material did not write the questioned material but the evidence is far from conclusive.

Probably did not

The evidence points rather strongly against the questioned and known writings having been written by the same individual, but, as in the probable range above, the evidence is not quite up to the “virtually certain” range.

Strong probability did not

This carries the same weight as strong probability on the identification side of the scale; that is, the examiner is virtually certain that the ques-tioned and known writings were not written by the same individual.

Elimination

This, like the definite conclusion of identity, is the highest degree of confi-dence expressed by the document examiner in handwriting comparisons. By using this expression the examiner denotes no doubt in his opinion that the questioned and known writings were not written by the same individual.